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Clients' Testimonials
I really liked the Taichi session! I thought it was even better than yoga.
If time permits, I would like to sign up for a proper course. It was good exercise :)
Ms Yvonne Yoong, Teacher
- Beatty Sec
Very interesting & though Taichi is a slow impact exercise, it very strenuous.
Ms Jeerah, Teacher
- Beatty Sec
Very enlightening and attractive. Coaches gave clear instruction and well prepared.
Mr Sin Lai Keong, Teacher
- Beatty Sec
Thank you! Great Taichi session, I enjoy so much!
Monica Loh
I had fun during the wushu program, and it was good exercise :)
Joy Fu, Student
- CHIJ St Nicholas Girls School
I had a lot of fun. You know I have never experienced something so picturetaking
There were so many moves of self-defense. Coaches are very nice. This rocks!
Harviran Singh, Student
- Northland Primary
Very interesting and a rare opportunity for me to take part. Thumbs up :)
Crystal, Student
- CHIJ St Nicholas Girls School
The main reason I keep coming for Taichi lesson is that I want to be healthy & fit.
Coach make us feel “Taichi"
Qing Wen, Student
- Hong Wen School
It is very good for beginners & the Coaches are very friendly & patient.
I want to learn more advanced Taichi.
Brian, Student
- Hong Wen School
I actually hated wushu but Coach Yip made me like wushu.
Brandon Oh, Student
- Princess Elizabeth Primary
I like learning new movements because it helps my body.
The coach is very good in Wushu, I would like to continue learning.
Jonathan, Student
- Princess Elizabeth Primary
I wish that Coach Yip will come here again to teach us and he is very friendly.
Muliati, Student
- Princess Elizabeth Primary


Principle of Training In Sports Performance
Jane Tan, Senior Coach of NewAgeTaichi, Copyright 2009
(WORD COUNT: 1,166)

Improvement of an athlete's performance is based on sound training principles. Although there are other external factors such as initial level of fitness, heredity, nutritional status (e.g., diet composition and hydration), health habits (e.g., sleep), and motivation which will also influence the rate and degree of adaptation that occurs, five fundamental principles have been identified that determine the effectiveness of all training programs. They are known as the principles of specificity, overloading, progressive, reversibility and variance.

Exercise training specificity refers to adaptations in metabolic and physiologic functions that depend upon the type and mode of overload imposed. A specific anaerobic exercise stress (e.g., strength-power training) induces specific strength-power adaptations; specific endurance exercise stress elicits specific aerobic system adaptations with only a limited interchange of benefits between strength power training and aerobic training. Nonetheless, the specificity principle extends beyond this broad demarcation. Aerobic training, for example, does not represent a singular entity requiring only cardiovascular overload. Aerobic training that relies on the specific muscles in the desired performance most effectively improves aerobic fitness for swimming, bicycling, running, or upper-body exercise. Some evidence even suggests a temporal specificity in training response such that indicators of training improvement peak when measured at the time of day when training regularly occurred. The most effective evaluation of sport-specific performance occurs when laboratory measurement most closely simulates the actual sport activity and/or uses the muscle mass and movement patterns required by the sport. Simply stated, specific exercise elicits specific adaptations to create specific training effects (McArdle, W. D. et al., 2007).

When we talk about the principle of specificity, the training needs to be functional to the specific sports movements. Taking for instance, short bust of interval running is functional and specific to the nature of movement for basketball players during the game but is not so specific for badminton players where lunges would be more functional and specific to describe their movement.

Resistance training also need to cater to the principle of specificity in that the resistant training has to cover the full range of motion for the specific sports. To develop the speed and power of a tennis serve, athlete can be asked to perform the actual serving with a resistance tubing to add on the intensity and to develop the speed and power so that there is a positive transfer to the specific movement.

In Tai Chi, most of the movements require the athlete to stay in a relative low posture throughout the routine and emphasizing a lot on controlled weight transfer of the body’s weight. As such, the muscle strength and endurance in the lower legs play an important role and with the principle of specificity, walking lunges will be one of the training which will be used to train as it mimics closely to the movement pattern of Tai Chi.

In order for the physiologic function to induce a positive training response, regular application of a specific exercise overload is essential. As such, it was observed that exercising at intensities greater than normal will stimulates highly specific adaptations of the body functions more efficiently.

The overload principle states that in order to enhance muscular performance in sports, the body must exercise at a level which is higher and beyond that at which it is normally stressed followed by recovery. Taking for instance, an athlete who can easily complete 10 repetitions with 25lb while performing a bar bell curl exercise must either increase the weight, the repetition, or the number of sets if he wants to increase his arm strength, otherwise, if the training stimulus is not increased beyond the level to which the muscles are accustomed, training adaptations will not occur. Overload is generally manipulated by varying the exercise intensity, duration, or frequency.

The concept of individualized and progressive overload applies to athletes, sedentary personnel, and even cardiac patients. An increasing number in this latter group have applied appropriate exercise rehabilitation to walk, jog, which focuses on the correct gait movement pattern and postural alignment where eventually they are able to engage in run and may even compete in marathons and triathlons (McArdle, W. D. et al., 2007).

The principle of progressive refers to continually and progressively placing demands on the body that are greater than that to which it is normally accustomed to. As a muscle and bones becomes stronger, it will adapt to the stress that is placed on it. In an effort to making long-term gains in muscular fitness, the training stimulus must be increased consistently at a rate that is compatible with the training-induced adaptations that are occurring.

A reasonable guideline is to increase the training weight to about 5% and decrease the repetitions by 2 to 4 when a given load can be performed for the desired number of repetitions with proper exercise technique and good postural alignment. For instance, in weight resistance exercise if an adult female can easily perform 12 repetitions of the chest press exercise using 100lbs, she should increase the weight to 105lbs, decreasing the repetitions to 8, if she wants to continually make gains in muscle strength and not to suddenly increase the weight by too much of a fraction which will actually cause injury.

Alternatively, she could also increase the number of sets, increase the number of repetitions, or add another chests exercise to her exercise routine. Although every training session does not have to be more intense than the last session, the principle of progressive states that the training stimulus needs to be increased constantly if additional gains are desired. Once the desired level is achieved, gains in muscular fitness can be maintained with a modified training program provide that the individual continues to lift the same amount of weight (Howley, Edward T. and B.Don Franks, 2003).

Loss of physiologic and performance training adaptations (detraining) occurs rapidly when a person terminated participation in regular exercise. It takes only 1 or 2 weeks of detraining to reducing both metabolic and exercise capacity, with many training improvement lost within several months (McArdle, W. D. et al., 2007)

In order to avoid some of the effects of detraining, the use of other training modes may be beneficial. However, cross-training may only attenuate some of the loss of physiological adaptation normally seen during complete stoppage of training. Aerobic endurance athletes can minimize the effects of detraining by continuing to use their primary mode of exercise at reduced frequency and intensity, if possible (Baechle, Thomas R. and Roger W.Earle, 2000).

The principle of variance it suggests that a training program should include a variety of training methods. This will help to maintain interest and motivation, and makes sure that the loads you work against are varied. Taking strength training for example, the use of free weight, body resistance or tubing adds variety to the training. It is very easy to develop overuse injuries and if you do not give your body sufficient time to recover your can develop chronic exhaustion.


Training principles, specificity, overload, progressive, reversibility, variance.


Baechle, T.R. and R. W.Earle, (2000) Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning/National Strength and Conditioning (2nd Ed) Human Kinetics

Component of Fitness Website (2008) (5th June 2008)

Howley, E.T. and B.D. Franks, (2003) Health Fitness Instructor's Handbook (4th Ed) Human Kinetics

Intelligent Training for Distance Runners Website (2008) (1st June 2008)

McArdle, W.D. et al., (2007) Exercise Physiology, Energy, Nutrition & Human Performance (6th Ed) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Baltimore